Answer:None. These medications are used for anxiety, and if this is a trigger for your AF it may help. But they are not useful for treating AF, in general.
Answer:Yes you have many other options. There are many other medication options - flecainide, propafenone, dofetilide to name a few. Ablation is also an option. I can\'t comment on which is best for you. You should discuss this with your cardiologist or seek an opinion from an electrophysiologist.
Answer:I would not worry so much about it, but the echo makes sense. Good luck.
Answer:This is a common complaint. Alcohol is a common AF trigger, and many patients develop AF at night or when lying on the left side. I would avoid alcohol and see a cardiologist.
Answer:I don\'t understand your question. A pacemaker will not treat a fib. Your friend should discuss with her cardiologist.
Answer:There are several medications that can slow down the heart rate in a fib, beta-blockers, calcium channels or digoxin. If the AF persists then cardioversion or anti arrhythmic medications can be used. Good luck.
Answer:PACs are benign and a common cause of palpitations.
Answer:This is too involved a question to answer without more records on your sister. She should discuss these questions with her cardiologists at Univ Washington.
Answer:Star AF2 was just recently published in NEJM and confirmed several smaller studies. I know of no follow-up planned yet. In all honesty the ablation approach for persistent AF depends on the center and electrophysiologist. I do believe the STAR AF2 results and mainly focus on wide astral PVI, ablation of any induced macro reentrant flutters, and ablation of nonPV triggers for persistent AF. I don\'t believe empiric linear or CFAE ablation has a role any more (or ever did), but others may feel differently. Flecainide is an anti arrhythmic medication used to treat AF - it can be used in many situations if you have no coronary artery disease.
Answer:The incidence of AF after atrial flutter ablation varies in the literature, but in general the incidence of AF is about 50% at 5 years, and may be even higher. The CTI ablation does not trigger AF. It is that atrial flutter typically starts with a brief episode of afib that then organizes and sustains as atrial flutter. Ablation of atrial flutter eliminates the sustained atrial flutter circuit, but the afib triggers remain present and will often manifest over time. The most common triggers for afib are alcohol and stress.