Recurrent AF after catheter ablation occurs in at least 20 to 40% of patients. Repeat ablation is primarily considered for those with symptomatic AF recurrences (often drug-refactory) occurring at least 3 months or more post-ablation. Pulmonary vein reconnection is almost universally encountered, and repeat isolation of electrically connected pulmonary veins should be the primary ablation strategy. Beyond repeat PVI and possible ablation of non-PV triggers, there is little to no evidence that additional substrate modification improves outcomes. In addition to repeat ablation, it is critical to address and treat comorbid conditions which increase arrhythmia risk post-ablation. Specifically, obesity, hypertension, and sleep-disordered breathing should be targeted and modified to increase the likelihood of success.