Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has evolved enormously thanks to rapid improvement of modern mapping technologies, progress in catheter development and current possibilities for reduction of radiation exposure. Pulmonary vein isolation is thereby the cornerstone in this interventional treatment. Increased precision of catheter localization by modern three-dimensional mapping systems, faster and better processing of local electrograms and their immediate color-based visualization make it possible to treat even challenging arrhythmias very effectively. The commonly used three-dimensional mapping systems CARTO 3 (Biosense Webster, Irvine, Ca.) and Ensite Precision (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, Min) differ in construction and principles of the underlying mapping technology. In this review article, we aim to emphasize the most important aspects of possibilities that make both systems so valuable for interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation. We present a modern workflow, that unites three-dimensional LA mapping with collecting relevant local information, image integration for refining the map and beneficial use of contact force based ablation approach.
Credits: Martin Borlich MD, Leon Iden MD, Ingo Paetsch MD, Gerhard Hindricks MD, FHRS, Philipp Sommer MD, FHRS.