The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the onset and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF) may be related to autonomic imbalance. The ANS may cause specific cellular electrophysiological phenomena, such as, shortening of the atrial effective refractory periods (ERPs) and ectopy based on firing activity in pulmonary vein myocytes. High frequency stimulation of atrial ganglionated plexi (GPs) may cause an increase in ERP dispersion and induce AF. Autonomic modification strategies by targeting GPs with catheter ablation have emerged as new targets. Various strategies have been used to detect location of GPs.However, it is still not clear which is the best method to localize GPs, how many GPs should be targeted, and what are the long-term consequences of these therapies. In this review, we discuss available evidence on the clinical impact of GP ablation to treat AF.
Credits: Carina Hardy,Esteban Rivarola,Mauricio Scanavacca