Radiofrequency catheter ablation of pulmonary veins has emerged as an effective therapy for patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation. Advances in real-time intracardiac echocardiography with 2D and Doppler color flow imaging have led to its integration in atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. It allows imaging of the left atrium and pulmonary veins, including identification of anatomic variations. It has an important role in guiding transseptal catheterization, imaging the pulmonary vein ostia, assisting in accurate placement of mapping and ablation catheters, monitoring lesion morphology and flow changes in the ablated pulmonary veins, hence allowing titration of energy delivery. Importantly, it allows instant detection of procedural complications.
Credits: Elad Anter, MD; Mathew D. Hutchinson, MD; David J. Callans, MD